This page will show you how to cite common types of sources within the text of your Chicago Manual Style papers.

How to cite sources in-text when you paraphrase:

An in-text citation is a short citation that you make when you mention any information from one of the sources you are using for a paper.  You need to do in-text citations even when you paraphrase by putting the words of an author into your own words.  The in-text citation consists of inserting a superscript number beside the information you are citing.  A superscript is a tiny number located to the upper right of the information you are citing.   Here is an example.

Example: Pompey Magnus’s army met the troops of Julius Caesar at the battle of Pharsalus, where Pompey was defeated after his cavalry was routed.1

Each source you cited will be in number order beginning with 1, and then 2, 3, 4, etc.  This continues each time you cite a source for your paper.

Each source citation number is then linked to a footnote at the bottom of the page containing more details about the source.  Here is an example of a footnote for our source above about the battle Pharsalus.  In this case, the source is a book and we can see the details about the author, title, publisher, publication date, and page number of the information.  Here is information about how to insert a footnote in Word.

Example: 1. John Smith, Julius Caesar (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

Quoting Sources

Anytime you use information word for word from a source this is considered a quote and must be placed in quotation marks and cited.  Here is an example of how to quote a source in Chicago Style.

Example:  Dickens could have been speaking of our current moment when he wrote “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.”2

Then you would include the rest of the citation in the footer.  In this case it would be.

Example: Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities (Simon & Shuster, 2010), 1.

Citing AI in a Footnote

Only use AI generated text if your professor allows it.  To cite AI in Chicago Style, you’ll place the information in a footnote.  There is no author when citing AI, so instead write a note that your text was generated by AI, the AI tool, the company that owns it, the date you access the AI, and a link to the AI homepage.

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,

AI does not need to be cited on the Bibliography page of a Chicago style paper.  For more details on citing AI in Chicago Style, look here. 

For more details on how to cite sources in-text in Chicago Manual Style, consult the Chicago Manual Style website, check out the Library copy of the Chicago Manual Style Handbook,  or contact [email protected]