This page will show you how to cite common types of sources within the text of your APA Style papers.  Remember that everything cited in-text should also be cited on the References page.

How to cite sources in-text when you paraphrase:

An in-text citation is a short citation that you make when you mention any information from one of the sources you are using for a paper.  You need to do in-text citations even when you paraphrase by putting the words of an author into your own words.  The in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and then the year the source was published, all inside parenthesis.

For example, if I’m citing the book Skeleton Crew by Stephen King published in 1985, my in-text citation for the book would be:

The short story The Raft features four protagonists trying to survive when stranded on a raft while a monster hunts them (King, 1985).

You may also integrate the in-text citation into the sentence.

In Stephen King’s 1985 short story The Raft  he uses haunting locations as a way to instill fear into his reader.

See how the in-text citation information is written right into the sentence?  This way makes the parenthesis unnecessary.

In-text Short Quotes:

If you take an author’s words directly you need to put them in quotations marks and cite them in-text with the author’s last name, year of publication, and the page number of the quote.  For example, the novel Moby Dick begins with the lines,

“Call me Ishmael” (Melville, 1851, p. 1).

In-text Long Quotes:

Quotes of 40 words or longer must be cited differently from short quotes.  Instead of putting them into quotation marks you must indent the entire quote half an inch inside the the left margin.  Make sure to include the in-text information at the end.  This includes the author last name, date of publication, and page number. You may also integrate that information into a sentence that introduces the quote.

The Associate of Science (A.S.) degree in Business Administration is designed to provide the foundation necessary for optimal transfer to bachelor degree  programs and beyond, while also simultaneously preparing students for immediate employment in a wide range of business environments requiring  advanced business skills. In addition, this program will enhance the skills of those already employed in the field and those interested in starting or building their own business (Schrum, 2020, p. 67).

These are the most common kinds of in-text citation you will have to do on college papers.  For more details about in-text citation consult the official APA Style Website, the APA Style Publication Manual book held in the Library, or contact library@pennhighlands.edu